28 JUNE: SARAJEVO 1914 – VERSAILLES 1919, edited by ALAN SHARP

On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated in Sarajevo. The assassin’s bullets proved fatal not only to the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne (and, accidentally, to his wife, Sophie) but ultimately to the peace of Europe and to four great multi-national, multi-ethnic, multi-lingual empires that had dominated Eastern and Central Europe for centuries. At the end of the war, whose length and ferocity stunned its participants, subject populations across the globe, encouraged (not always intentionally) by the inspirational rhetoric of the American president, Woodrow Wilson, sought self-determination and statehood. Not all were successful but those that were transformed the maps of Europe and the world. Taken in conjunction with the peacemakers’ ambitious attempt to transform the conduct of international relations with the founding of the League of Nations, the Paris peace settlements suggested nothing less than a New World Order, though hardly an uncontested one. Vladimir Lenin’s bolshevism was the first of several revolutionary ideologies that would pose a serious threat to the new status quo.
Following on from Haus’s landmark 32-volume Makers of the Modern World series, this unique volume for the first time studies participation in the war from a truly global perspective. Its collection of 28 essays seeks to explain how each of the countries that signed the first of five Parisian peace treaties at Versailles on 28 June 1919 – exactly five years after that fateful day in Sarajevo – came to be there, or, the case of Russia and China, why they were not. Some, like the Kingdom of Hejaz, had never been a signatory to a treaty before whilst Poland had seen its nationals fight for three different, opposing armies. Finally it offers an overview of the peace settlements and the post-war world.

Alan Sharp was Professor of International Studies and later Provost at the University of Ulster.

1. Introduction by Alan Sharp, 1
Map 1: Europe 1914, 4

28 June 1914: Assassination of Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo
2. Serbia, Sarajevo and the Start of Conflict by Dejan Djokic ́, 10

28 July 1914: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
3. The Dual Monarchy Stumbles into War by Bryan Cartledge, 30

1 August 1914: Germany declares war on Russia – part I
4. The Problem of Germany by Alan Sharp, 55

1 August 1914: Germany declares war on Russia – part II
5. From Steamroller to Empty Chair by Charlotte Alston, 73

3 August 1914: Germany declares war on France
6. How France Entered the First World War by David Robin Watson, 93

4 August 1914: Germany invades Belgium
7. Belgium: the Victim by Sally Marks, 107

4 August 1914: Britain (and its empire) declare war on Germany – part I
8. Britain and the Outbreak of War by Alan Sharp, 118

4 August 1914: Britain (and its empire) declare war on Germany – part II
9. How the Empire Went to War by Antony Lentin, 134
Map 2: Western Pacific Rim, 135

23 August 1914: Japan declares war on Germany
10. The Chance of a Millennium by Jonathan Clements, 146

1 November 1914: Russia declares war on Turkey
11. The Ottomans’ Last War – and After by Andrew Mango, 151
Map 3: The Ottoman Empire 1914, 154

23 May 1915: Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary
12. Neutrality or Intervention? Italy’s Long Road to War by Spencer Di Scala, 158

14 October 1915: Bulgaria declares war on Serbia
13. Bulgaria Choosing Sides by Alan Sharp, 174
Map 4: Turkey, Greece and Bulgaria 1912–23, 176

9 March 1916: Germany declares war on Portugal
14. Portuguese Intervention by Filipe Ribeiro de Meneses, 180

5 June 1916: Arab revolt against the Ottomans begins
15. The Hejaz: On the Road to the Arab Rebellion by Robert McNamara, 186
Map 5: The Arab Revolt and its aftermath, 187

30 August 1916: Turkey declares war on Romania
16. Romania Enters the War by Keith Hitchins, 199

6 April 1917: United States Congress declares war on Germany
17. America’s Road to War by T G Fraser, 203

7 April 1917: Cuba and Panama declare war on Germany
18. Central America, the Caribbean and the First World War by Irene Fattacciu, 218

13 April to 7 December 1917: South America and the First World War
19. In the Grasp of the United States by Edoardo Braschi, 223

27 June 1917: Greece declares war on Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany and Turkey
20. Greece and the First World War by Andrew Dalby, 228

22 July 1917: Siam declares war on Austria-Hungary and Germany
21. Why on Earth Was Siam a Participant in the First World War? by Andrew Dalby, 234

14 August 1917: China declares war on Austria-Hungary and Germany
22. Labourers in Place of Soldiers by Jonathan Clements, 237

26 October 1917: Brazil declares war on Germany
23. The Wavering Road by Edoardo Braschi, 242

12 January 1918: Liberia joins the war
24. Why Did Liberia Enter the First World War? by Mariella Hudson, 247

5 November 1918: Poland declares Independence
25. From Fighting in Three Armies to the Proclamation of an Independent Poland by Anita Prazmowska, 250

28 June 1919: The Treaty of Versailles – part I
26. The End of the War and Peacemaking 1919 by Alan Sharp, 267

28 June 1919: The Treaty of Versailles – part II
27. The Signature of the Treaty of Versailles by Alan Sharp, 273
Map 6: Europe 1923, 274

28. The Peace Settlement Reviewed by Alan Sharp, 278
Map 7: Turkey and the Near East 1923, 280

Notes, 298

Chronology, 357

Bibliography, 362

Author Biographies, 389

Index, 398


Publication Date: July 2014
RRP: £30
336 pp
ISBN: 9781908323750
eISBN: 9781908323767